appreciation and depreciation

It also makes more expensive, providing a disincentive for domestic consumers to purchase imported goods, leading to lower levels of imports , but which reduces the real income of consumers. Devaluation tends to improve a country’s balance of trade by improving the competitiveness of domestic goods in foreign markets while making foreign goods less competitive in the domestic market by becoming more expensive. However, the devaluation increases the prices of imported goods in the domestic economy, thereby fueling inflation. This, in turn, increases the costs in the domestic economy, including demands for wage increases, all of which eventually flow into exported goods. These dilute the initial economic boost from the devaluation itself. Also, to combat inflation, the central bank would increase interest rates, hitting economic growth.


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Some countries, such as Panama, fix their home currency to the U.S. dollar at a rate, like 1-to-1. Doing so requires actively managing substantial reserves of U.S. dollars to keep the peg in place. In the case of a fixed exchange rate, the peg is a way of importing the monetary stability of another country, and leads to no trade advantage for the pegging country. When a foreign currency depreciates against the U.S. dollar, American exports become more expensive for foreigners to buy. Similarly, the foreign goods become cheaper for Americans to buy, thus exacerbating the trade deficit if the foreign country already exports more goods to the U.S. than it imports. In general, foreign exchange rates are determined by the supply and demand of currencies across countries.

What is currency devaluation?

However, high export taxes tend to encourage tax evasion and smuggling, at least for commodities that are more easily transported or poorly controlled for. Neither the IMF nor the World Bank has been able to show connection between their own programs and improvements in economic policies. There is still a great deal of political influence on the process of aid allocation. There are programs that have failed or have taken longer to implement than originally planned. Some programs have been poorly implemented in the recipient countries.

When speculators buy out all of the foreign reserves, a balance of payments crisis occurs. Economists Paul Krugman and Maurice Obstfeld present a theoretical model in which they state that the balance of payments crisis occurs when the real exchange rate is equal to the nominal exchange rate . In practice, the onset of crisis has typically occurred after the real exchange rate has depreciated below the nominal rate. The reason for this is that speculators do not have perfect information; they sometimes find out that a country is low on foreign reserves well after the real exchange rate has fallen.

devaluation noun [C or U]

In other words, as an impact of currency devaluation, The exports become more lucrative and it discorages imports. The design of the SCM is similar to that of the traditional difference-in-difference setting in so far as the goal is to find an appropriate control unit that is comparable to the treated unit . The goal of this study is to create a synthetic country that reproduces the trajectory of the income per capita in each of the CFA-zone countries pre-1994.

With their help, the state can raise or lower the attractiveness of the country, adjust the volume of exports and imports, etc. Uncontrolled devaluation of money is essentially hyperinflation, which can only be stopped through structural monetary reform. Devaluation occurs when countries deliberately weaken their currency, and the central bank controls the exchange rate. In the international market, many currencies are not pegged to another currency.

Governments devalue their currencies to improve their trading position in the world. Is the total income generated by a business through sales of products or services. It is also referred to as sales and is a measure of a company’s health. Any American company that was sending products to China will see demand for their goods drop after a devaluation.

Often, this occurs because a country’s existing fixed exchange rate can’t be sustained with existing foreign exchange reserves, or to alter the balance of trade. Recall that foreign exchange rates are determined by supply and demand. A country can build up a reserve of U.S. dollars so that if it wanted to weaken its currency, it could sell its own currency and buy U.S. dollars.

5.3 Economic Crisis and Macroeconomic Structural Adjustment

A may undergo a period of devaluation if it suffers from stagflation due to its high-interest rates. A devaluation positively impacts government revenue and positively impacts a country’s exports. Additionally, a devaluation will affect the price expectations of consumers and producers, leading to an alteration in the inflation rate. However, it is worth noting that a devaluation also has its drawbacks, not the least of which include sparking „competitive devaluations“ in other countries. It may seem counterintuitive, but a strong currency is not necessarily in a nation’s best interest. Exports are more competitive in global markets with a weak currency, and imports become more expensive.

  • If individuals and companies have foreign debt, they lose money.
  • When a country decides to devalue their currency to make its goods and services cheaper, it can cause an increase in inflation.
  • In the simulations, we change the real exchange rate of one region at a time, keeping all other regional real exchange rates fixed.
  • Some accused China of secretly devaluing its currency so it could revalue the currency after the 2016 presidential election and appear to be cooperating with the United States.
  • Explain how changes in the price level in the domestic country or in a foreign country causes the equilibrium exchange rate to change.

This information is educational, and is not an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any security. This information is not a recommendation to buy, hold, or sell an investment or financial product, or take any action. This information is neither individualized nor a research report, and must not serve as the basis for any investment decision. All investments involve risk, including the possible loss of capital. Past performance does not guarantee future results or returns.

The U.S.’ Currency War

The second issue we examine is the impact of exchange rate changes to date on world trade. In the case of the US, for example, we find that the exchange rate changes to date could add more than $50 billion to the US trade deficit. The impact would be felt throughout the traded goods sector, with the light manufacturing and machinery sectors hit particularly hard. In 1998, Russia’s growing interest rate and expanded capital outflow stoked fears of a devaluation of the currency.

  • The simulation results reported in the previous section have obvious relevance from this standpoint.
  • If a nation wants to prevent its currency from falling in the case of a surplus, it has to buy its own currency and sell foreign currency, or it can devalue its currency to prevent having to sell foreign currency.
  • His country’s currency was suffering from a record-high monetary value, which was hurting its economic growth.
  • Explain how an increase in the price level affects the real value of money.
  • This can encourage domestic consumption but that is not always possible if some goods simply are not available domestically.

Therefore, economists say that the exchange rate follows a “random walk”, i.e. the best forecast of tomorrow’s exchange rate is today’s exchange rate. The likelihood of appreciation and depreciation are the same. India’s former central bank governor, Raghuram Rajan, criticized the United States and others involved in currency wars. He claimed that this exports inflation to the emerging market economies. Rajan had to raise India’s prime rate to combat the inflation of its currency, risking a reduction in economic growth. Exchange rates determine the value of a currency when exchanged between countries.

Our results suggest that the IMF-supported devaluation had neither significant negative effects nor significant positive effects for the majority of the countries relative to the synthetic controls. In the Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic, potential benefits from the IMF-supported devaluation were offset by deterioration in the national institutional environment. In Gabon, dependency on crude oil coupled with a large drop in the price of oil offset potential benefits of the IMF-supported devaluation.


If the value of balance of trade is positive, that is, if the balance of trade lies above the zero line and the curve rises the balance of trade improves. In order to interest the global market rushing to sell pounds after Soros, the British government decided to raise the discount rate (i.e. interest on currency ownership). As always, Great Britain stayed away from all this, betting on its own competitiveness. This confidence was sufficient for 11 years, and in 1990, the country joined the agreement, pledging to keep the pound between 2.78 and 3.13 German marks per pound. Explain how an increase in the supply of goods and services affects the demand for money and the purchasing power of money.


His conclusion was that devaluation was the solution, which went very much against the politics of the time – previous governments had tried to prevent devaluation. There have been threats of competitive devaluations among the region’s exporting economies. Capital Economics points to data showing that China has not been too active in direct foreign exchange purchases/sales since mid-2017. Countries can manipulate their currencies by actively managing their reserves of foreign currencies to support their home currency at a desired level. Interest rates are an example of one factor that can change a currency’s value.